Eyeball the pile. Figure out roughly what's in it. You should end up with between two and five categories. Two of these are almost certain to be "disposables" and "other". If all you end up with is "disposables" and "other", that's fine. Don't worry about it.
Sort the pile into these categories.
Take the "disposables" pile. Put it in recycling bins or trash cans as appropriate. If doing a large amount of cleaning it might be wise to get a larger container from somewhere, like a laundry basket or a shopping cart.
Take any piles besides "other" and deal with them appropriately. You should know where to put this pile based on what's in it. If you don't, and the pile is of appreciable size, it's time to find a place for it. If you don't and the pile is smaller than you expected, add it to "other".
If the "other" pile is the only pile left on the entire floor, either figure out where to put it, or put it in a corner. Sometimes you just have miscellaneous stuff that doesn't go anywhere. That's fine. A few uncategorized items won't hurt anyone - if you try to store it somewhere, you'll merely lose it. Stop cleaning now - you're done, unless you feel like vacuuming or mopping or dusting.
If there are piles left, simply don't worry about the "other" pile. You'll deal with it in a future iteration of this algorithm.
Return to step 1.
This algorithm is optimizable. If you know there's a lot of video games up ahead, for example, you might not want to deal with your "video games" pile until you've got them all collected. This is fine. It's mostly a sorting method.
Always remember that not everything has to be sorted.